The Development of Muscle Wrapping Techniques

Fast and Accurate

A demonstration of new muscle wrapping techniques.

The progress in improving algorithms and the conception of novel techniques to simulate biomechanical muscle behaviour greatly improves our ability to simulate the human body.  This has enormous implications for the medical field with rehabilitation and injury prevention.

The Natural Geodesic Variation ( NGV ) Method

Musculotendon paths are often modeled to simply to correctly predict musculo skeletal behaviour. Previously, muscle wrapping methods have been limited to either analytical results for a pair of simple surfaces, or are computationally expensive.  The Natural Geodesic Variation (NGV) method is a state of the art muscle wrapping technique for the fast and accurate computation of a musculotendon’s shortest path across a biologically accurate surface, and it provides an explicit formula for the path’s exact rate of length change.

Natural Geodesic Curves

A muscle wrapping path used to demonstrate the NGV technique finds exact solutions

With a general approach to complicated muscle wrapping paths, simulation performance can be dramatically improved.  Geodesic curves are nominally the shortest path along a smooth surface and are uniquely defined for a point and direction on that surface.  By ensuring the muscle wrapping formulation adheres to the NGV method, shortest-path muscle wrapping solution can be correctly simulated in real time.



Picture of Dr. Ian Stavness

Dr. Ian Stavness
Assistant Professor


  • A fast multi-obstacle muscle wrapping method using natural geodesic variations. Google Scholar
    Multibody System Dynamics, (in press):1–25, 2015.
  • A general approach to muscle wrapping over multiple surfaces. Google Scholar
    American Society for Biomechanics Conference (ASB). Talk. August, 2012.